House Training & Crate Training Tips for Dogs

Bringing home a new puppy or an older dog means opening up a whole new world of love, excitement, and experiences! We hope these house and crate training tips for dogs will help make life easier for everyone in your home, including your new pet.

House Training Your Dog Requires Consistency and Encouragement

Puppies and older dogs are happiest when they know exactly what their owners require of them, which means it’s a good idea to plan out a schedule. By nature dogs tend to try very hard to please you, so they may soon enough catch on to the times you expect them to eat, play, sleep, and go outside to relieve themselves or go out for a walk. If you are careful to stick to the scheduled times, all while taking your dog’s age and size into consideration and using patience and rewards, you can teach your brand new member of the family what is expected of him or her in a few weeks or months.

When your dog is fully house trained, life will be happier and easier for everyone. In some cases though, the training process will usually take four to six months and occasionally up to a year before full training status can be accomplished.

When to Start House Training

For puppies you can start house training when they are between 12 and 16 weeks old. A general rule of thumb is that puppies can control their bladders for one hour for every month of age, which means three-month-old puppies should be able to hold in their urine for three hours. Smaller breeds have smaller bladders and can’t control them as long as bigger breeds can, however, so keep this in mind as well.

If you’ve adopted an adult dog or a senior, there’s a chance they may have learned bad habits from an earlier living situation before coming to your home. If this is the case, you may have to spend some time helping your new pet unlearn their bad habits by starting basic training all over again, just as if they were young puppies. Be prepared.

Space

Confine your puppy to a particular space and routine while house training.

  • A puppy (or an older pooch) should be kept in a large crate, or in a particular room where there is no carpet, or on a leash near you where you can keep an eye on your new family member. You can spread paper in one area (use several layers) of a room, but make sure your dog has space left to play, sleep, and eat in the room.
  • When taken outside, your dog should be on a leash and taken to the same spot for elimination each time.
  • As your dog learns that outside is where elimination is supposed to occur, you can give your best friend a little more freedom to move around in the house.

Times of the Day

Always take a puppy outside first thing in the morning and again 30 minutes later, and continue with 30-minute intervals all day.

  • When your new puppy grows up a little, you can extend their schedule to two-hour intervals.
  • Also, remember to take your pet outside after meals, after naps, after playtime, before being left alone, and at night just before bed.

Mealtimes

Offer food to your dog on a regular schedule, which may be three or four times a day when the puppy is really young and small, and remove any leftover food after mealtime.

  • Remove the water bowl about two hours before bedtime to lessen the chances that your pooch will need to go outside in the middle of the night—most dogs can sleep through the night. If you do have to take your dog outside, turn on very few lights, don’t talk, don’t play, and put him or her back to bed as soon as you return inside.
  • If dogs are fed at the same time each day, it is likely that they also need to eliminate at the same time each day, which can speed up the house training process.

Outdoor Trips

For any walks or trips outside, use a leash and take your puppy to the same spot each time if they need to eliminate. The scent will help remind your puppy of what is expected.

  • Use the same word or phrase each time the puppy is eliminating so that the word or words become a signal to them of what to do.
  • Give your dog praise and a reward as soon as their business is finished—not after you go back inside the house. That’s too long for dogs to wait to be able to associate the reward with the action. Also, be careful not to give rewards before they’ve finished or they may be so happy that they stop and don’t remember to finish until they are back inside.
  • During house training time, don’t take your dog for a walk until the job has been done in the regular spot. This will help reinforce the training.

In the Event of Accidents

Expect accidents to happen from time to time while house training your dog. Watch for the signs—barking, squatting, circling, or scratching at the door—that your dog needs to go outside.

  • If your puppy starts to eliminate in the house, interrupt the act by quickly and firmly saying, “Outside”—without yelling or threatening them—and immediately take your dog outside to finish. Never be upset or angry at them, and don’t ever rub your puppy’s nose in the spot or they may become scared to eliminate in your presence. When you go back inside, clean it up.
  • If you discover an area in the house that has been soiled, it’s too late to do anything but clean it up and make sure there is no lingering odor that may encourage further accidents. Again, never ever force your dog to smell the spot as punishment or yell at them after the fact; not only is this unnecessary but your dog won’t understand why you’re angry, they’ll only understand that you are angry. This, in turn, can cause a dog to distrust and dislike you as their owner. Always be gentle when house training, even if an accident occurs.

How to Make Crate Training a Happy Experience

Crates are great for keeping your dog safe and confined when they’re young and before being house trained. Crates are also useful when transporting your dog in the car or anywhere a dog isn’t free to run. Buy a crate big enough to allow your dog to stand, turn around, and lie down in.

The main rule when crate training is to make sure the crate is associated with happy experiences and is viewed as a “safe, comfortable place” by your dog. Take your time and don’t expect miracles overnight.

6 Steps for Crate Training:

  1. Place the crate, door open, in the room with your pup, and put a toy and blanket inside. After your dog is used to having it in the room, place a treat inside and wait for puppy to go inside and explore. You may have to wait a few days.
  1. Put the dinner bowl near the crate and after a few days, put it inside. If your puppy enters freely and is comfortable, gradually move the food bowl to the back of the crate; if not so comfortable, put it right inside the door and move it back over a longer number of days.
  1. After a few days, close the door while puppy is eating and open it as soon as the meal is finished. Start leaving your dog inside for a minute or two after the meal is finished and then longer, but open the door immediately if there is any indication of unhappiness or unease. It means you should leave puppy inside for shorter intervals. Start over.
  1. If your puppy starts to cry or whine, don’t open the door until the whining stops or that becomes the way your dog trains you! You mustn’t let that happen. Pet your dog and offer a treat. Open the door while your dog is eating the treat.
  1. As before, gradually increase the time your dog is left inside when you are home and in the room, and then leave the room for a few minutes and then for longer periods. In time, you can coax your puppy inside with a treat and a command like, “crate time,” and leave him or her there for a few hours.
  1. If you want to crate train your puppy at night, keep the crate inside or near your bedroom so your pet doesn’t feel alone and abandoned. Over a period of weeks, you can move the crate further and further away until it is in the location you prefer.

House training and crate training are important responsibilities of dog owners. It is always best for you and your pet to work with a certified dog trainer. When you have accomplished these tasks and your dog is house trained and crate trained, you can rest easy knowing you have a very happy and well-adjusted dog!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

5 Safety Tips for Walking Your Dog in the Winter

Dogs love to go for walks no matter what the weather is like! Thanks to our awesome climate in the Vancouver and Burnaby areas, the weather is usually mild enough that you can go outside and walk and play with your dog even in the winter. It sure can get cold though! This drop in temperature presents some safety concerns for dog owners, which is why we are offering you five important safety tips to help you deal with the challenges of walking your dog in the winter.

Remember that the benefit of taking your dog for regular walks during cold weather usually outweighs the risks, but you must pay attention to how your dog is reacting. In general, the colder the weather is, the shorter the walk should be. Check the weather forecast and the wind-chill factor online before you go out.

1. Learn to Deal with Cold Weather Risks

You must watch out for signs that your dog is too cold for comfort. If he or she seems to be having fun but then starts to whine, repeatedly lifts or licks their paws, or begins to shiver, it’s time to head back home. Some breeds, especially bigger dogs with thick coats, are much more tolerant of the cold. Even so, they shouldn’t be walked for too long or left outside for a long period of time.

Keep a close eye on your senior dog and expect the winter weather to aggravate their arthritis and stiffness. Older dogs need to be exercised, but the length of your walks should decrease as your dog ages. Talk to your veterinarian about supplements to help with their arthritis.

Frostbite is no joke and dogs are at a greater risk of this when the cold winter months settle in. If you see signs that the skin on your dog’s ears, nose, paws, or tail have become cold, pale, and hard, you have to worry about frostbite if the walk is prolonged. Take your dog home and apply warm—not hot—cloths to the areas and wrap your little friend in a warm blanket. Don’t allow biting, scratching, or chewing of the affected areas as they can become infected.

Pay particular attention to your pet’s paws. Keep the hair between your dog’s toes clipped so that ice doesn’t accumulate in small, hard balls that make walking painful. After a walk, always wipe your dog’s paws with a warm, wet cloth to remove salt and other chemicals that have been used to treat roads and sidewalks, and dry them carefully. Apply a dog-safe moisturizer—not one for humans—to keep your dog’s paw pads from drying out and cracking.

Consider buying protective clothing for your dog—a sweater or coat—especially if your dog is small with short hair. Your dog is not as fashion conscious as you are and will certainly appreciate a cozy sweater’s warmth when the temperature drops. Have more than one coat or sweater available so you will be able to alternate and give them time to dry out between walks. A wet sweater will make a dog much colder than dry fur or hair.

2. Keep Your Dog from Eating Harmful Substances

Although you must always be on the alert for your dog’s inclination to eat almost anything interesting and edible found outside, winter brings particular substance dangers with it. The chemicals in products used to melt ice as well as road salt and antifreeze are very toxic and can contaminate other items dropped on the road and sidewalks that may smell and look appealing to your pet. Make sure your dog is not allowed to eat anything found outside. The best way to do so is to make sure your pet is fed before leaving the house, and to carry a few treats with you.

As well as food items that may entice your pet to take a bite, make sure unlimited amounts of snow are not consumed. Bring some water—you can purchase a pet water bottle that has an attached dish—and offer it to your pet from time to time so that eating the snow isn’t too appealing. You never know what chemicals may be in snow.

3. Watch Out for Ice Hazards

This is the time of year that boots or booties become practical footwear for dogs. Not only will they keep your dog’s paws reasonably dry and warm and protect them from toxic substances, but also they can keep your dog from slipping on the icy road or sidewalk.

4. Avoid Problems with Metal

We all know about the obvious problem with metal in the winter, and young humans aren’t the only ones tempted to lick them. Like humans, dogs might lick a metal object and pull the skin right off their tongues in an effort to break free. Try and imagine that pain.

There is another danger in winter from metal posts, plates, sewer covers, electrical boxes, etc., and it is the risk of electrical shock. Melting ice and snow and faulty wiring can create an electrical hazard, which means you and your dog should steer clear of metal, and is another good reason for keeping your dog on a short leash when walking in the winter.

5. Be Aware of Dangers That Lurk in the Dark

It is safer to walk your dog in daylight than in the dark, but with winter’s shorter days and longer nights, you may not have that choice. Be sure to wear clothing with reflectors to catch the light from headlights in order to reduce the danger from traffic. Your dog’s collar should also be reflective and you can attach LED lights to the leash. Remember that it takes vehicles longer to stop in snow or on icy streets, so you should give drivers as much warning as possible that you and your dog are sharing the roadway.

When daylight is fading or approaching, keep to the sidewalks as much as possible. Remember that dogs become cold quickly if snow touches their unprotected bellies, so you should avoid deep snow as much as possible. Frost and, on rare occasions, deep snow can sometimes conceal sharp objects as well.

Burnaby Dog Parks for Wintry Walks

Naturally if it’s snowing out too hard or the temperature is too low, it’s best if you and your dog both stay inside. However, if the weather is mild as usual, consider taking your dog out to one of the following dog parks in Burnaby BC and the surrounding areas. These dog parks listed below are open year round:

  • David Gray Park enclosure
  • Confederation Park’s off-leash trail
  • Burnaby Heights Park’s off-leash area
  • Warner Loat Park
  • Burnaby Lake Regional Park
  • Malvern Park
  • Robert Burnaby Park
  • Taylor Park

Using these five safety tips for walking your dog in the winter will help you keep your pooch healthy, happy, and safe when the cold weather sets in. Happy walking!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

Great Gift Ideas for Pet Owners and Their Pets

Are you looking for some gift ideas for your furry friends? We have some great suggestions to help take the stress out of making decisions in time for the upcoming holiday season!

We all know how much you and your friends love their precious pets, and we know that they usually treat their pooches and kitties with tenderness and affection. If you are a pet owner, you know exactly what I mean!

If you are currently choosing a gift for your own or someone else’s pet, there is a wide range of choices to fit any wallet. If you are looking for a gift for a pet owner, there is an equally wide selection. Gifts are available from pet stores and online, too.

Both Cats and Dogs Will Love These Gifts

If they knew how to write, we’re sure pets would add many of these items to their wish lists:

1. Treats – What pet doesn’t love a yummy treat? That’s right, they all do!

  • Choose from a variety of cat treats or dog treats that are both delicious and nutritious. They are great to use as rewards when training pets (e.g. training them to come when their name is called) and for comforting them when they are in stressful situations (e.g. after meeting new people and animals).
  • An alternative treat idea is a water fountain that both cats and dogs will enjoy and can even use together. Fountains can help a pet stay hydrated and most cats and dogs are attracted to the sound of running water. Pet fountains are usually made of stainless steal or porcelain and are easy to clean when necessary, but any fountain with a low brim that sits on the floor will do.

2. Toys – There are many cat toys and dog toys available that will keep pets amused and active all by themselves, and other toys that will also keep their owners active and amused when they’re playing with them!

  • Both dogs and cats love to chase balls. Even though the game is different for each kitty and pooch, try to find the right type and size of ball and plan on everyone having a good time. Some balls make interesting noises and flash sparking lights to entertain your cat, and others are perfect for tossing through the air for a dog to chase and retrieve. Choose one for your pooch that lights up at night for a fun evening game!
  • Toy choices that will make every pet happy are the chew toys. These can help keep a dog’s teeth healthy, and they’ll keep cats from chewing on electrical cords and wires or other dangerous items.

3. Comfort Gifts – Pamper pets with a cozy bed, or provide an aid for senior pets to make their life easier.

  • Every pet loves to have a bed that is just right for them even if they’re allowed to sleep on their owner’s bed now and then. There are memory foam beds for pets that live with arthritis, and there are thermal cushioned mats for senior pets that use an insulated layer to keep a pet warm using body heat rather than an electrical connection.
  • Pet stairs or pet ramps are a good choice for senior pets with arthritis since they may be no longer able to jump up onto the bed or the couch, or that allow dogs to get up into cars when travelling.
  • Brushing your pet’s coat not only feels good to them, but also it keeps pet hair and fur from building up on every surface in the home. Select a good brush for a pet and everybody wins!

More Gifts to Pamper a Pooch

  • What dog doesn’t love to play with a Frisbee? Even a senior dog will probably not be able to resist trying to catch a spinning Frisbee in the air or on the ground, and running back to their owner with it, chewed and covered with slobber. Good times!
  • Who wants to play tug of war? Dogs do, that’s who! Buy a good tug-of-war rope and you’ll make a dog and their owner very happy.
  • When it’s time to go out for a walk, dogs will appreciate having their paws warm and dry when the weather isn’t. Try finding them water resistant socks or shoes and you’ll make both them and their owner’s walks even better!

More Purr-fect Gifts for Kitty

  • Do cats love chasing wands, wand teasers, and bird feather teasers? Oh, yes, they do! These toys are not only fun for kitties, but also they provide good exercise. Cats will stretch up on their toes or jump up into the air to catch their “prey” whenever you offer them one of these!
  • Cats love to scratch, and scratching posts are welcome gifts for cats and their owners. Add a little catnip to really encourage kitty to scratch the post rather than the furniture.
  • Wind-up toys are always fun! They come in a great variety of small, tempting, “animal-looking” prey to excite and lead kitty on a merry chase.

Gifts That Please Pet Owners

There are a multitude of awesome gifts for pet owners that let them show the world that they love their pets, make playing with their pets easier, and help keep them safe.

  • Pet tote bags with illustrations of cats or dogs are welcome gifts. Owners can carry pet essentials (e.g., food, water, toys) on walks, travels, or visits to friends.
  • Pet owners need a crate for both cats and dogs for long-term travel, and are needed for cats even on short car trips.
  • A litter scoop is an inexpensive gift for a cat owner, and poop bags or a poop bag carrier is an ideal, inexpensive gift for a dog owner.
  • An attractive throw to protect a pet’s favourite sleeping spot on a sofa or comfy chair can make a pet owner very happy!
  • There are a lot of pet gates that will keep a dog (not a cat) out of a room or rooms. Some of them come with a hinged door and some with useful auto-close features that are useful when your hands are full.
  • Dogs love being taken for walks no matter what time of day! For late eveningwear, check out leashes with a light-up LED light or those made from glow-in-the-dark material.
  • A tennis ball holder for playing catch with a dog makes the fun easier on the owner, who may get tired before their dog does.
  • Placemats to put under pet food and water dishes, making cleanup for owners easier, and they aren’t too expensive.
  • Personalize gifts with their pet’s name and a pet owner will be over the moon! You can arrange for pet names to be embroidered on blankets, T-shirts, Christmas stockings, engraved on jewelry, stamped on dog or cat collars, placemats, etc.
  • Pet-themed bins for toys, jars for treats, collars for cats or dogs, owner T-shirts, welcome mats, socks, coffee mugs, phone cases, key chains, coasters—you name it, there will be a cat or dog theme for almost any gift item at a very wide range of prices.
  • Books on pet care, how to interpret a pet’s form of communication, subscriptions to magazines aimed at dog and cat owners, or a book full of humorous dog and cat stories will take care of gifts for pet owners who like to read.

We hope our suggestions help you find the perfect gifts for pet owners and their pets in time for the upcoming holiday season. Look for these items in your local pet store or online. Whatever gift you get them, we know your friends and their pets will love them. Have fun!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

Older Cats Need Love, Too! 8 Reasons for Adopting One

Older cats make great pets! Their need for love and their willingness to return love so readily is only one of eight reasons to adopt an older cat. We love kittens just as much because they are so cute and cuddly, and it’s easy to lose our hearts to them even though, in many cases, an older cat might be a better choice for your household.

Why There Are Many Older Cats Available for Adoption

Older cats may be given up for adoption for a few reasons. Usually it’s because the owners:

  • are downsizing to an apartment that won’t accept pets
  • no longer want a cat after a baby is born into the family
  • have someone moving into the home who suffers from a cat allergy
  • develop asthma or some other allergy to cats
  • are moving to another area with accommodations and conditions unsuitable for pets
  • accept a new job that involves extensive travel and can no longer care for a pet
  • are moving into a seniors’ complex that doesn’t allow pets
  • become too sick to care for a pet, or are hospitalized for an indefinite time, or pass away

Older cats are often not chosen for adoption because people seeking a cat as a pet don’t realize the many benefits of choosing an older one, so they pick a cute little kitten instead. Lonely older cats yearning for a loving home may end their days in an animal shelter.

An older cat can be defined as any full-grown cat, which means it has reached the age of 18 months and, for some large breeds (e.g., a Maine Coon), at ages two to four years old. You can consider a cat to be a “senior” at approximately seven years old—again, depending on their breed. Most people consider a cat to be an “older cat” when the animal is beyond the cute kitten stage.

Whatever the definition, an older cat needs love just as much as a kitten does. Without further ado, here are the advantages of adopting an older cat.

1. Lower Costs

Most older cats have already received their vaccinations as kittens and may have had some of the booster shots as well. They have usually been spayed or neutered already as well. All these procedures have basic costs, which have been paid for by their previous owners, and it means that the costs of cat ownership are lowered by a lot for new owners. Your new cat needs to be registered and examined by a veterinarian where you can pass along all the information about her or him from the previous owner and/or shelter where you obtained ownership and you can ask questions about how to care for an older cat.

2. Easy Care

Speaking of care, it is a lot less work to care for an older cat than a kitten. You merely have to introduce your cat to the location of his or her litter box and you are free from the necessity of training your cat to use it. Also, you won’t need to entertain or play with an older cat as frequently as you must with a kitten since kittens require a lot of interaction. An older cat usually already knows the terms “no,” “down,” and “off,” and is more likely to come when called by name. Older cats have been socialized and are anxious to become part of a family.

3. Great With Kids

Young children have to be cautioned many times about being gentle with a kitten but often forget, or don’t really know what “gentle” means and, in some cases, don’t have the motor skills needed to be gentle “enough.” Kittens don’t understand acceptable behavior either, and they might often bite or scratch children without realizing their claws and teeth hurt, so they must learn to be gentle as well. Older cats already know how to keep their teeth and claws to themselves, have much more patience, will break free of children who hurt them rather than fight back, and will still love their little owners.

4. Great With Seniors, Too

An older cat is a great companion for an older adult. Senior cats as well as senior owners are more relaxed and move more slowly. Older cats have lower energy levels and are much less likely to do anything destructive, like trying to claw their way up the drapes or jump up on tables where there isn’t room for them. Older cats sleep a lot and enjoy households where the pace of living is slow and relaxing.

5. Great With Other Pets, Three

If you own other cats and want to introduce a new pet into your household, it is a lot easier if you choose a mature cat rather than a kitten. Kittens want to play, not only with you but also with your other pets. Kittens can create a lot of stress, especially for older cats who like their established lifestyle and routines and don’t want to deal with an energetic, playful kitten. It is also better to select an older cat that has lived in a household with other pets and has learned to live with them as well as with humans.

6. An Established Personality

When you choose a kitten as a pet, you have no idea what your pet will be like as an adult cat. Maybe your kitten will grow up to be absolutely delightful and a good companion for you, or may become an unfriendly annoyance who leaps on you from the top of the fridge or scratches your ankle from under the bed, or launches an assault on you while you’re sleeping (this is rare, though, and if present kittens will outgrow this behaviour). Former owners can describe their cat’s behaviour and staff at a shelter will know whether or not a cat gets along well with other animals and if it is friendly with people. You want to choose a cat who will be happy in your household, and you can make a more informed choice if it is an adult with an established personality.

7. Experienced and Wise

No matter how cute and sweet kittens may be, they require a lot of work to keep up with their energy. Kittens need time to learn how to use their litter boxes, not to jump up on tables and counters, not to climb up the curtains, and not to get into trouble when you leave the house. Older cats know how to use a litter box, understand how households run, don’t care if you leave them alone for most of the day, are happy on their own, are happy if you are there with them, and come when they are called.

8. Immense Love

Older cats are so grateful to be in a family household after living without an owner and/or in a shelter. It’s so easy to love a kitten at first sight, but it takes a lot of work to care for them and raise them when you have a busy schedule. An older cat needs love and gives tons of love back when they’re adopted. Any older cats who have been denied such a warm and loving environment for so long will be very happy to have found a new home and will love their new owners at once. You can count on them for devotion and to remain attached to you for the rest of their lives.

Even a senior cat can be a delightful companion. Many age-related health problems such as arthritis can be managed with good care. As long as they have the right owners, senior cats can live full and happy lives and prove to be perfect pets for many cat lovers.

There are many good reasons for adopting an older cat, even cats who have reached their senior years, and they have lots of love to give. Let your heart be your guide—as well as recommendations from animal shelter staff!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

Tips for an Enjoyable Halloween Night for Pets

Halloween is almost here! Costumes, parties, and plans for the day are likely already in place, including costumes for our furry friends. It is becoming quite popular to dress up your dog and the occasional cat in addition to the traditional partying and trick-or-treating on Halloween night. It is an enjoyable time and being socially inclined, dogs (and the odd cat) are happy to be involved in the fun. New commercials on TV appear to encourage pets go out trick-or-treating with kids!

Again, all fun and enjoyment with the right pet, but remember there are pets (as are humans) that may not be lining up to be part of the dressing up or socialization.

Pet families know their pets the best and it is important to assess how involved your pet may like to be during Halloween, or what the families’ overall plans should be. Addressing the following should help you make this a happy Halloween for the whole family:

  1. Pets can get anxiety from firecrackers (noise phobia) – skipping fireworks or boarding your pet in a safe, quiet kennel for fireworks nights are ideas to consider.
  2. Taking your pet for trick-or-treating may increase their chances of ingesting chocolate or candy, which can be toxic to them. Adult supervision for both your child and your pet is advised.
  3. If trick-or-treating with pets, putting a leash on should help keep them safe.
  4. Strangers can be wary of unknown pets, no matter how friendly your pooch is!
  5. If you are giving out candy to kids or will have many visitors, ensure your pet will not escape with the frequently opening front door.

Once safety for everyone is taken in to account, all you have to decide is if your pet will be a superhero, a hot dog, a prisoner, or will simply skip the dressing up!

By – Dr. Jangi Bajwa,
Veterinary Dermatologist & Practice Owner at Hastings Veterinary Hospital, Burnaby.

How to Train Your Cat to Walk on a Leash

Yes, it’s true! Your cat can be trained to walk on a leash. While letting your cat outdoors is not something we recommend, if your cat insists on going outside and you live in an area where it isn’t safe to let cats outside on their own because of traffic or other dangers, the only way you and your cat can have fun outside is to train them to walk on a leash. It’s not difficult to introduce your cat to the leash and if your pet is familiar with it, you can enjoy frequent outings together.

Will Your Indoor Cat Enjoy Going Outdoors?

You can let a cat outdoors on a leash if it absolutely insists on going outside. You need to be vigilant, of course, and make sure your pet is protected as much as possible against various bacteria, parasites, poisons, and the usual outdoor dangers that they may encounter. You also have to accept the fact that outdoor cats are never as safe as indoor cats because of the dangers. This is why we don’t recommend letting cats outdoors in the first place. Having your cat on a leash is the safest way to protect them if they want to be outdoors.

You may decide that you want your cat to remain indoors unless on a leash. The question is, will going outside be a treat and will the leash be accepted by your cat?

Maybe – Cats that are trained to walk on a leash generally enjoy being outdoors and exploring. As long as cats are trained slowly and at an early age, most of them can adjust to the outdoor experience. Walking on a leash can keep them from becoming bored and lazy. It allows them to have regular exercise, which helps to maintain their health and weight. It can also be fun for both of you!

Maybe Not – Some cats are never comfortable walking on a leash because of their personalities, their age, or their health. If you spend a lot of time slowly and patiently introducing the harness and leash with plenty of treats and praise, but your cat continues to resist, it is time to give up. Accept your cat’s decision to not walk on a leash and play indoor games instead.

How to Train Your Cat

When training your cat, each stage requires treats, praise, and patience.

1. Purchase the Right Equipment – The “right equipment” means a harness, not a collar. Cats can slip right out of a collar, so make sure you buy the correct sized harness, preferably one that is adjustable. 

2. Introduce the Harness – Leave the harness near the food dish so your cat associates it with something nice—food, of course! If the harness makes a snapping sound or the characteristic Velcro sound when the harness is adjusted, make those sounds with the harness multiple times for several days so that your cat is used to the sound before you try fitting it on. After a few days to two weeks, put the harness on your cat right before mealtime, and take it off afterwards. Repeat for several days.

Once your cat is used to the harness, try adjusting it for size—you need to be able to fit two fingers under the harness. Leave it on for a few minutes and offer your cat a treat, some praise, and a pat on the head before taking it off.

3. Introduce the Leash – Your cat may not mind wearing the harness or it may take several days or weeks before it is accepted; take your time. When your cat is used to wearing and walking around with it, attach the leash. Let it drag on the floor while you feed your cat treats, give praise and a pat on the head, play for a bit, and then take it and the harness off.

After the leash is accepted, pick up the end and follow your cat around the house with the leash slack in your hand. Don’t forget the praise and treats! Then try gently coaxing your cat with a treat while guiding the harness. Don’t allow your cat to back out of the harness because you don’t want that to happen when you are out on a walk. Repeat this exercise daily for a few days.

4. Take Your Cat For Walks Outside – With the harness and leash attached, pick your cat up in your arms and walk out of the house. Never allow your cat to walk out or your cat will be streaking out the door whenever it is opened. Carry a towel with you in case your cat gets scared when you put them down on the ground. That way, you can quickly wrap up your cat in the towel to avoid being bitten or scratched before taking them back into the house.

Try going outside each day for an hour, always staying close to the door so that you can go back inside at a moment’s notice. After building their confidence while outside, your cat will soon enjoy going for walks. If at any point your cat drops to the ground with tail twitching and ears flattened back, stop the training session or the walk. Your cat is always the boss and you do whatever the boss wants!

Useful Hints

  • Don’t tie up your cat outside and leave your pet unattended. A cat can be tangled up in the leash in no time or be spooked by another animal or a person and can’t get away.
  • Keep your cat from picking up items and licking or chewing anything. Have some treats handy as a distraction.
  • Remember that you are walking a cat, not a dog. Cats tend to be less inclined to be guided by a leash and they may decide for no obvious reason that today is not a good day for a walk. Or they may decide a walk is fine, but not at the same place as before, even though it was a perfectly acceptable place yesterday.

Most cats can be trained to walk on a leash, but not all. If you live in an area where it isn’t safe to let a cat outside and your cat refuses to cooperate with your training efforts, resign yourself to enjoying only indoor adventures with your pet. Again, we don’t advise letting cats outdoors, but if you need to then using a harness and leash is the safest way.

However, you could be lucky. Purchase a cat harness and leash and try training your pet. It may take many weeks of effort or you could be out walking with your cat quite soon. You’ll never know until you try!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

15 Scientific Reasons Why Owning a Dog is Awesome

If you are debating on getting a new dog, but you’re also thinking of how much time and effort it takes to care for one, don’t worry—they can take care of you too! Here are 15 scientific reasons why owning a dog is not only awesome, it’s even healthy for you!

Good for the Heart

According to a recent study, owning a dog could reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. Not only is this a heart-warming benefit, it’s also a heart-healing one.

Dr. Fido, PhD

People who unfortunately live with anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and other mental and/or physical health problems can get some relief from AAT (animal-assisted therapy) or pet therapy. Your furry friend is right there during your time of need, whether it’s during a depressive episode, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), physical therapy, or just a really bad day.

Dogs = Happiness 

Owning a dog requires you to have a daily routine and forces you to stay active, including interacting with other people, which in turn creates a sense of well-being while taking care of a dog. This routine can help a clinically depressed person out of a depressive episode. Dog owners are less likely to develop depression than non-pet owners. Interacting with and receiving love from a dog can help you stay positive. Even looking at your dog increases the amount of oxytocin (“feel good” chemical) in the brain.

Cancer Detectors

Since dogs have a sense of smell that’s a million times stronger than ours, they have been known to be able to smell out bombs and drugs. This means that dogs can sniff out what’s going on inside of our bodies as well. Studies have shown that dogs can be trained to isolate the differences of a healthy person to that of one suffering from breast or lung cancer. They can also be trained to detect biomarkers in the urine of those suffering from prostate cancer. 

Less Stress

We’ve established that dogs can help make us happier. There is also research that shows interacting with dogs can reduce stress. Not only does petting or playing with your dog increase oxytocin levels in your brain, but also it lower the production of cortisol, i.e. a stress-inducing hormone.

Lower Blood Pressure

This connects to owning a dog for the heart and happiness. Research has found that pet owners have lower blood pressure brought on by mental stress when getting support from their furry friends.

Dogs Help with Self-Esteem

Dogs are considered to be man’s (and woman’s) best friend, and rightfully so. A study found that pet owners have higher self-esteem, felt more conscientious, and even bounce back from social rejection better. Being a single adult can be quite isolating, but there’s good news. Another study found that owning a dog is most beneficial for the mental well-being of a single adult.

Quit Smoking Aid

Did you know that owning a dog can help you quit smoking? The harmful effects of second hand smoke on a pet motivates 28% of smokers to quit, says one study.

Bring your Dog to Work?

If you can bring your dog to work, there is a positive perk; they can help lower your stress levels on the job. Research shows that employees with their pets at work reported lower levels of observed stress throughout the day. If only every office could allow this.

Immune System Boost

If you feel a cold coming on, don’t just reach for the tissues, reach for your dog too. A study performed on college students saw overall health benefits to the immune system of students asked to pet real dogs, opposed to stuffed animals or nothing at all.

Detect Life-Threatening Health Issues

As well as being able to sniff out cancer, dogs can be trained to identify when their owner is having a seizure. Given a dog’s extraordinary sense of smell, they can be trained to catch triggers for an owner with food allergies before their owner has a potential reaction.

Find Out More About Your Personality

Your personality can be reflected in the kind of dog you own. According to a study from England, there is a very clear association between people’s personalities and what type of dog they own. Small dog owners tend to be more intelligent, while the owners of dogs like Dalmatians and Bulldogs were the most conscientious, for example. It has been found in other studies that, generally, dog owners tend to be friendlier and more social than cat owners.

Kids Become More Empathetic

In a 2017 study of 1,000 7 to 12-year-olds, it was found that pet bonding of any kind stimulated compassion and positive attitudes towards animals, which in turn promotes a better well-being for both the child and the pet. The highest pet attachment was scored by children with dogs, noting that “dogs may help children to regulate their emotions because they can trigger and respond to a child’s attachment related behavior.” 

Teaches Responsibility in Children

Taking care of a pet means thinking about something other than yourself. According to research, kids who feel a strong connection to their pets reported feeling more connected to their communities and relationships. 

Help Us Age

We already know that dogs help our physical and mental health. In those of retirement age, owning a dog helps give them a sense of purpose. The companionship dogs provide, as well as the care they require, helps reduce the feeling of loneliness.

We hope this has convinced you to follow through with your dog adoption! Now if anyone asks, you can tell them owning a dog is great—and it’s proven by science.

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

How to Prepare for Your Kitten’s First Veterinary Appointment

First of all, congratulations on becoming a new kitten parent! However, there is a lot that needs to be done other than providing the new kitty with lots of cuddles and playtime. There is new food to get for the kitten, new toys to provide so he or she doesn’t get bored, a new litter box to be set up…and a new veterinary appointment to book.

There is nothing to be nervous about on your part, but that may not mean the same for your kitten! They are likely still trying to adjust to all of the new sights and smells you are exposing them to on a daily basis. From a kitten’s point of view, meeting the vet can be a scary thing! However, there are ways in which you can make their first veterinary appointment a smooth one. Here are some tips.

Making the Appointment

Depending on when you adopted your new kitten, you need to bring them in to see a veterinarian within 48 hours of adoption. The standard age a kitten should be brought in is between 8 and 12 weeks old.

Though the 48 hour timeline is the usual recommended time to bring a new kitten in to the veterinary clinic, you should bring your kitten to the vet sooner if they seem ill. Signs of illness you should look out for include the following:

  • Watery eyes or tear ducts
  • Sneezing
  • Loss of appetite
  • Breathing problems

Making the appointment is easy: pick up the phone and call the vet! Your new cat’s veterinarian may ask you some questions prior to the appointment.

You will also need to provide paperwork detailing your kitten’s medical history. Kittens from animal shelters can be released after 8 weeks and it’s very likely they will already have received their first round of vaccinations. The shelter will tell you if your vet needs to provide your new kitten with a booster shot.

Before the Appointment

Before bringing your new kitten to the veterinary clinic, you need to make sure you have a secure, appropriately sized cat carrier in which your kitten can travel. Your kitten may not like the carrier at first, so you need to get them used to it. The carrier should also be big enough for when your kitten becomes fully grown.

Place the carrier on the floor and leave the door open so the kitten can sniff inside and walk in and out of it. It wouldn’t hurt to place down a small blanket or even treats inside of the carrier! That way, the kitten will associate it with something pleasant rather than fearful. Depending on the kitten itself, it may or may not even choose to sleep inside (this would be a great thing to happen! Again, you want to make sure its mode of transportation is pleasant).

Once the kitten is used to the carrier, try closing the door behind them. Then when they’re inside, lift and move the carrier into another room before letting them out and give them a treat. Repeat this until the kitten is used to the motion. Take short trips in the car with the carrier, followed by a treat so that, again, the kitten will not grow to hate their carrier.

When it’s time to leave and go to the vet clinic, talk to your kitten soothingly when they need to go into the carrier. Never raise your voice or get angry with the kitten if they still don’t like the carrier; some cats never get used to it despite our best efforts. When the kitten is inside, add a few more treats and keep talking to them as soothingly as possible before, during, and after traveling to the vet.

During the Appointment

Allow your kitten to explore the exam room when you bring them in for their appointment so that they get used to the strange, new smells and surroundings. Let them look around until it’s time for your vet to properly examine kitty.

A physical examination of the kitten should be expected at every veterinary appointment. Your vet will check the kitten’s ears for mites, their eyes for watering or crusty areas around their eyelids, and their mouth, teeth, and tongue for oral problems. They will also listen to their heartbeat to check for any murmurs and gently palpate their stomach for abnormalities. Your vet will need to take your kitten’s temperature rectally to ensure they don’t have a fever or underlying problem as well. Allow your kitten to walk around so your vet can make sure their joints and muscles are normal and that there’s nothing wrong with your kitten’s knees or mobility.

A fecal examination may be performed to ensure there are no parasites such as roundworms, hookworms or tapeworms living inside your kitten’s body; depending on their previous environment your vet may ask you to bring in a stool sample. Your kitten’s vet will also comb through their fur to ensure no fleas or eggs are present on your kitten.

If your new kitten was not spayed or neutered prior to their first veterinary appointment, now is the time to bring it up. Spaying or neutering cats is helpful in preventing them from contributing to the over population of cats. It will also discourage certain behaviours such as spraying if done at the correct time. A follow-up appointment may be required if your new kitten is in fact not spayed or neutered; again, talk to your veterinarian about this.

Vaccinations for your kitten will be provided usually when they are around 8 weeks of age, with boosters at ages 12 and 16 weeks. Feline distemper (FVRCPC) is a typical vaccination for your kitten to receive during their first veterinary appointment. Your veterinarian will discuss with you if it’s necessary to provide vaccinations against FELV (feline leukemia) and rabies based on your kitten’s new lifestyle.

After the Appointment

Never hesitate to ask your vet any questions that were not covered during the appointment! The more they know about your kitten, the better they can help them lead a happy and healthy life.

If your kitten is given a clean bill of health from your vet and their required vaccines are all up to date, you’ll be advised to do a follow-up exam next year and then be sent home.

Once the kitten is brought back into your home, be sure to give them cuddles, treats, and playtime! Enjoy being with your new kitten!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

8 Ways to Prepare Your Home for a New Dog’s Arrival

Are you planning on bringing home a new dog? Adopting a new pet is one of life’s greatest joys, but it can also be a challenging experience. Your pooch may be understandably nervous when meeting your family and while adjusting to a new home and surroundings. By carefully planning and following a few basic steps, you can ensure your new pet is safe, healthy, and happy, both when the big day arrives and for years to come.

1. Find Ideal Spots in Your Home

Your new dog will be excited or anxious coming to a new home, so expect a few accidents to occur, perhaps for a few days. Choose areas that are easy to clean for your new pet’s bed, water and food dishes, and playtime areas. Scatter newspapers around for a few days to make “accident cleanup” easier.

Use baby gates to close off areas where you don’t want your dog to go. That way you have a chance to teach your pooch which rooms you would like to keep off limits.

2. Check for Danger Zones and Products

Inspect the areas and closets where you keep shoes, dirty clothes, and any makeup or personal care products that could be within your dog’s reach. Put things up high, store them in drawers, or put them behind doors fastened with ties to make sure your pet doesn’t have access to them. Some dogs love to chew on personal items and are attracted to anything with an interesting smell.

If you have a fireplace, make sure it is blocked by a screen or a grate. You may need to make the room where the fireplace is located off limits to your new dog if they get too curious.

Keep all of your cleaning products, chemicals, tools, plastic bags, sharp objects, and matches out of reach or in cabinets/closets that can’t be opened by a curious pup.

Remove small objects from tables that can be reached by your pet. The last thing you want to find is a sick dog that decided to chew on or swallow them, or knock them off and break them!

Keep valuable objects such as expensive vases and table lamps, as well as frequently used items such as cell phones, iPads, and remote controls out of reach.

If you store food on low shelves or keep munchies out on tables, be sure to remove them. Keep in mind that many foods for humans are poisonous for dogs, such as grapes and chocolate. Use safety latches on low cupboards to make sure your pet can’t reach your food or any garbage cans.

Remove plants from the floor, or put them behind furniture so your dog is not tempted to chew on the leaves or flowers. A few house plants that are toxic to pets include lilies, azaleas, irises, sago palm, and daffodils.

3. Hide Electrical Cords and Wires

Bundle cords and wires together and hide them safely behind furniture where your dog can’t reach and chew on them. If you can’t hide dangerous wires and cords, tape them against walls or furniture.

Don’t charge your phone or iPad in outlets that are on or near the floor, and don’t leave plug-ins dangling from outlets where your pet can reach them.

4. Take Precautions for Older Dogs

If you’re looking to adopt an older dog, please be aware of any mobility problems they may have. You also need to be aware that bare floors can be difficult for them. Keep your new senior dog out of rooms with hard, slippery floors, such as the kitchen and bathrooms, and keep them comfortable with carpets or rugs that are secured and won’t slide. If all of your floors are hard, consider buying booties with secure, rubberized soles made specifically for a senior pet.

If an older dog has trouble using the stairs without help, use baby gates to block them off, or invest in pet stairs, or a ramp. You may need a ramp to help an older dog climb into your car too. Raised feeders and heated beds are also great for senior dogs.

5. Purchase Food to Welcome Home Your New Pet

Purchase dog food, preferably a type appropriate for your dog’s age and veterinarian approved. Have a box of treats on hand; they are useful when training a dog, and some treats can even help keep your dog’s teeth clean.

Find out what your pet has been eating before introducing the food you want to provide. If there is a particular food to which your new dog is accustomed to, it is wise to keep offering it while introducing new foods. Gradually increase the amounts of the new food over a few days or weeks.

Make sure you are familiar with your pet’s normal eating schedule. You can adjust it over time to work with your own schedule and the feeding routine recommended by your veterinarian.

6. Purchase Items for Both Indoor and Outdoor Living

Have a collar and an ID tag purchased for the trip home when you go to collect your new dog.

A leash is essential no matter where you may live. You will occasionally have to take your pet with you in and out of a vehicle and having your dog on a leash and trained to heel will be a lifesaver in busy areas.

Have a comfy bed for your new pet, which should be chosen according to the dog’s size.

Be sure to invest in a pet carrier or crate because you may need one for travelling time to time. Be sure it’s a regulation carrier because homemade carriers are not as secure.

Purchase separate bowls for food and water each, keeping your dog’s size in mind. Metal bowls are easier to clean and a mat to place under them is a good idea as some dogs are pretty messy eaters! It is very nice to have a portable water-bottle-and-dish-combination, as well, for walking and hiking.

Have a brush and comb on hand, as well as shampoo, a toothbrush, and toothpaste specially made for dogs—toothpaste made for humans isn’t safe. The earlier pets are introduced to these care products, the faster they adjust to them and the healthier they will be.

You will certainly want to have a few toys for your new dog. Get toys your dog can safely chew on and are fun to play with for you as well!

7. Equip Your Home with Special Cleaning Items

You need to have appropriate cleaning products when you have a dog in the house, including an odor neutralizer. Whether you plan to allow your dog up on the furniture or not, he or she may decide to climb up on the bed or sofa and leave behind their own scent. It is a good idea to assume an accident might happen as well, so make sure your home is equipped with stain removers and repellants as well as paper towels.

Purchase a “pooper scooper” and plastic bags to take with you on walks or hikes. That way you can pick up your dog’s waste and dispose of it properly.

8. Post Lists as Reminders for Everyone

Talk to your veterinarian and set up an appointment before you collect your new dog, especially if there will be no veterinarian inspection first (normally there is a checkup at pet shelters before animals are released to new owners).

Post your veterinarian’s phone number and other emergency numbers—animal poison control, after-hours emergency care, etc.—in a place where everyone in the family as well as dog sitters or dog walkers can find them easily. Program these essential numbers into your phone, too.

Post “training words” as reminders to yourself, as well as for your family and visitors. For example, “down” is the usual word to use for dogs when you want them to stop jumping up on people, and “off” is the usual one to use when you want them to get off furniture. It is easy to see how dogs can receive conflicting messages if the word “off” is sometimes used in reference to jumping on people and “down” is used to instruct them to get down from furniture. It takes longer to train an animal if different instruction or “training words” are used.

Stay one step ahead of your new pet at all times, and remember to do a quick scan of areas to make sure nothing unsafe or hazardous has been left lying around. Also make sure that drawers and doors are securely closed when you leave a room.

With a little effort, you can have your home prepared for your new dog’s safety, well-being, and happiness. You can develop the habit of keeping it that way, which will ensure your happiness and peace of mind, too!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.

How to Protect Pets from Wildfire Smoke

Not only is there a heat wave going on in British Columbia, but also we are experiencing extremely smoky days due to the hundreds of forest fires that are happening in BC right now. The severe drop in air quality has made it dangerous for both ourselves as well as our beloved pets to walk around outside for very long.

Because of this combination of hot weather and smoke from the wildfires, extra precautions are needed to keep ourselves and our pets safe. Here are some pet health care tips to consider while we wait for the wildfire smoke to clear:

  1. Dogs that cough or wheeze occasionally may be affected by chronic bronchitis (typically older dogs), collapsing trachea (typically small breed dogs) or environmental allergies. Such pets are more likely to have worsening of symptoms due to the smoke.
  2. Cats on treatment for chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma– keep indoors and monitor for respiratory symptoms closely such as panting, labored breathing, coughing, etc.
  3. For dogs that are not used to strenuous exercise outdoors – wait till smoke clears before starting any exercise or training program.
  4. For flat nosed dog breeds such as English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs and Pugs, the high temperatures make them prone to respiratory difficulty due to hot weather. Keep indoors and keep cool as much as possible.

Let’s all hope that the smoke clears away soon and that we can all take a nice long walk outside with our pets again!

Creative Commons Attribution: Permission is granted to repost this article in its entirety with credit to Hastings Veterinary Clinic and a clickable link back to this page.